276565_154622484618785_1513992191_nITALIAN LOAN WORDS IN AZERBAIJANI

 

Prof. Dr. FARID ALAKBARLI

 

Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National

Academy of Sciences,

 

 

1. Introduction

 

Azerbaijan is a country at crossroads of numerous cultures, religions and civilizations. Since antiquity this land was known as a bridge between Europe and Asia. In the 2nd millennium BC, Azerbaijan was located on the path of migrations of Indo-European and Caucasian peoples. From the 4th century BC to 7th century AD, it was famous as important center of Zoroastrianism. In different periods, the Scythian, Hun, Mongolian, Seljuk and Turcoman tribes invaded Azerbaijan and settled here. Silk Road the caravan way from China to Europe passed through Azerbaijan. Various races, nations, cultures, religions and languages met and mixed here. Such religions as Zoroastrianism, Shamanism, Islam and Christianity, and such languages as Assyrian, Turkic, Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, Greek, Russian, Italian, Hebrew and German coexisted and influenced each other in Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijani (or Azeri) is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is spoken in some other countries. According to statistics from 2009, there are approximately 40 to 47 million native Azerbaijani speakers in the World. Huge population lives in Iran (circa 26 to 33 million). Around 8 million live in Azerbaijan Republic, and 6 millions in Turkey, Georgia, Russia, USA, Canada, Germany and other countries. In addition, Azeri is mutually intelligible with other Oghuz languages, which include the Turkish language as it is spoken in Turkey, the Caucasus, Cyprus, the Balkans, Iraq, Syria, and Western Europe, as well as the Turkmen language. The total number of people speaking Oghuz languages (Azeri, Turkish, Turkmen and some other small Oghuz languages) is around 120-125 million individuals and 40-47 millions of them are Azeris.

 

As it has been already noted Azeri is a Turkic language of the Oghuz branch, closely related to Turkish and also historically influenced by Persian and Arabic. It is an agglutinative language. In other words, morphemes (word units) are added (usually as suffixes) to modify the meaning of words. Prehistory of Oghuz languages is related with the Orkhon-Yenisey runic inscriptions which date back to the 5th-7th centuries AD, and the early-medieval heroic epos Kitabi-Dede Korkut (The Book of My Grandfather Korkut).

 

During the Middle Ages, the literary Oguz (proto-Azeri) was developed by such poets as Hasanoglu (Pur-Hasan) 13th c., Imadaddin Nasimi or Nesimi (1370-1417), Shah Ismail Khatai (1487-1524) and Fuzuli (1493-1156). It was complicated language of aristocratic elite, which was not clear for a wide-range of common people in Azerbaijan. The folk Azeri language was developed by Ashugs (minstrels) like Molla Panah Vagif (1717-1797) whose amazing lyrical verses are still popular in Azerbaijan.

 

During the first half of the 20th century, the new literary Azeri based on the lively folk language was finally formed. In 1923 AD, alphabet in Azerbaijan was changed from Arabic to Latin, and it greatly contributed to process of Westernization in all spheres of life (Alakbarov 2000). The European science, culture and music became spread in Azerbaijan, and Western scientific terms were adopted. Namely in this period many Italian words penetrated into scientific and cultural lexica of Azerbaijan. After 1930s, there were not essential changes in vocabulary of literary Azeri.

 

Despite Azeri is the Turkic language, many words were adopted from Arabic and Persian during the Middle Ages. These words constitute almost 50% of the literary Azeri. As from the second half of the 19th century, some words penetrated into Azeri from Russian, English, French, Italian and other Western languages. During 1980-2007, few words were adopted also from Turkish of Turkey which is the related to Azeri language. However, the European and Turkish loan-words are not numerous and constitute only about 2 % of modern Azeri.

 

Relations between Azerbaijan and Italy have very ancient history, which dates back to the era of Roman Empire. Despite the Italian and Azeri languages did not exist in those times, texts in Latin were found in Azerbaijan. For example in the Gobustan National Park near Baku was discovered a stone with Latin inscription that dates back to the 1st century AD: "Emperor Domitianus, the Blessed Caesar Germanicus. Livius Maximus, Legio XII Fulminata". It proves that some Roman legions could reach the areas around Baku in the 1st century AD. According to Strabo, in 65 BC the Roman General Pompey invaded Kingdom of Caucasian Albania (the present-day Northern Azerbaijan) and was at war with its king Orois.

 

Roman inscription in Gobustan.

 

The Emperor Mark Anthony struggled gainst Artavazd, the ruler of Atropatena (the Hellenistic kingdom in Southern Azerbaijan) and was defeated. However in 35 BC Rome and Azerbaijan became allies against the Parthian Empire. Alexander Helios, the son of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, was engaged with Iotapa, the daughter of Artavazd, the king of Atropatena. (see History of Azerbaijan 2002).

 

In the 4th century AD, the Caucasian Albania kingdom (the present-day Northern Azerbaijan) adopted Christianity. During the early medieval period this Orthodox country had the tight political and cultural relations with Byzantium (Kalankatuaci 1961). From Constantinople they got religious, secular and scientific literature in Latin and Greek. In 5th 6th centuries, Latin was taught in church schools of Caucasian Albania. For example, Eneida by Vergilius and other Latin authors were studied. In the 7th-8th centuries, Azerbaijan was conquered by Arabs and converted to Islam, after which Latin lost its importance, and was replaced by Arabic.

 

One of villages around Baku is named Romani. This word may be associated with Rome and the Romans legions which visited Baku in the 1st century AD or later. Besides, under the term Romans might be mentioned the Eastern Roman Empire, i.e. Byzantium. The official self-name of this state was not Byzantium, but the Roman Empire, and this country was named Rum, Roman or Ruman in Azeri too. The ruler of Northern Azerbaijan shirvanshah Akhsitan I Kesranid (ruled in 1160-1196 AD) was the cousin of the Emperor Andronic Comnen, and in 1174 AD the Byzantine troops came to Baku to help Akhsitan to beat off the invasion of Russian fleet. The toponym Ramani might appear as a result of such contacts (see History of Azerbaijan 2002).

 

Since the 12th century, relations of Azerbaijan with Rome, Venetian and Genoese Republics started to develop. In the 13th century, Marco Polo (1254-1323?) wrote about the famous kinds of silk produced in the Shirvan province of Azerbaijan. In those times, Genoese traders founded their colonies on the shores of Caspian. They bargained silk, carpets, jewelry and other goods. Italians even had vessels in Caspian. During the rule of sheikh Uveis Jalairid (1356-1374), the Genoese merchants owned lands in the vicinity of Tabriz, the capital of Southern Azerbaijan, and even attempted to build a castle near this city (Petrushevski 1949).

 

The first Venetian ambassador in Azerbaijan was Ambrogio Contarini (died in 1499). In 1474 he was forwarded to the court of Uzun Hasan Akkoyunlu (Hasan the Long), the king of Azerbaijan who controlled the western Iran and Iraq. The ambassador tried to persuade Uzun Hasan to start a war against Ottoman Empire in alliance with the Republic of Venetia. In 1487, Contarini published a book about his travel to Azerbaijan, Persia, Russia and other countries (Petrushevski 1949).

 

Marco Polo (the 16th century

unknown Italian artist).

 

Relations between Rome, Venetian Republic and Azerbaijan strengthened during the rule of Shah Ismail I Safavid (1487-1524), the Azeri ruler of Iran. Shah Ismail was born in Aradabil city in Southern Azerbaijan. After 1500 AD, Ismail captured royal power in Azerbaijan and entire Iran. Then, he was visited by ambassadors from Papas and Venetian Doge who tried to involve him in the war against Ottoman Empire (Efendiyev 1981). Shah Ismail wrote lyrical verses in Azeri under the pseudonym Khatayi, where he used some Roman words like Keysar (Caesar), Rum (Rome), etc.

 

Starting from the second half of the 19th century AD, influence of European culture in Azerbaijan became even stronger. The essential influence of Italian to Azeri begins from 20th century with increasing Westernization in all spheres of life in Azerbaijan. Some classical buildings in the center of Baku were built in the end of the 19th and beginning of 20th by the Italian architects. In 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was declared, and in 1919 the embassy of Azerbaijan in Italy was created. In 1920, Azerbaijan was annexed by Soviet Russia. The embassy was reopened in 1990s after regaining of independence.

 

2. Lexicographic situation and methods of identification of Italianisms in Azerbaijani.

 

The linguistic relations of Azeri with Russian, Arabic, Persian and French have been studied in certain extent. However the Azeri-Italian linguistic communications were not satisfactorily investigated.

 

To establish a total number of Italian words used in Azeri the Orthographical Dictionary of Azeri (OD) has been studied. The last edition of this dictionary includes almost all words which are used in literary Azeri. It contains about 80 000 lexical units. The difficulty of this work was related with the fact that the orthographical dictionary gives only alphabetical list of Azeri words without explanation of their origins and meanings. Therefore for identifying the Italian words used in Azeri, the additional literature was analyzed. The Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary and Glossary of Foreign Words have been analyzed as well.

 

Besides, the OD does not include words which are not used in the literary language, i.e. non-formal, jargon, slang and dialect words. Despite almost all Italian words used in Azeri are parts of literary language, a few words are used in slang too. As these words are used orally, they have been included in the list of Italian words used in Azeri with the pers.com. (personal communication) notification.

 

3. Italianisms in Azerbaijani language.

As a result of the present study a total of 130 root words of Italian origin have been found in Azeri. Most of these words penetrated into Azeri through Russian when Azerbaijan was the part of the Russian Empire (1813-1918). This process continued after declaration of the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920), and when the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic became the part of the Soviet Union (1922-1991).

 

60 Azeri derivations of these words have been identified too. These derivations were created by adding Azeri endings (mostly suffixes) to Italian loan-words.

 

Orthographical Dictionary of the Azerbaijani

Language , Baku, Lider Press, 2004

 

For example, the Azeri verb Fontanlamaq (to gush, to gush force) was created from the Italian noun Fontan (Fontana). Other examples: the nouns Fleytaçi (Flutist) and Fleytaçalan (Flutist, Flute player) are derived from the Italian loan-word Fleyta (Flauto) with the help of two Azeri endings çi (corresponds to the English ist in Flutist) and çalan (music performer, musician). The word Komediantlıq (hypocrisy, playing a part) was created by adding the Azeri ending lıq to the adopted Italian word Komediant (Commediante). The complex word Konsertarası (between the parts of the Concert) consists from two words: the Italian word Concerto and the Azeri word Arası (between, in the middle).

Creation of so many Azeri derivations from the adopted Italian words proves that these words are completely integrated into Azeri. Common people use such words as Fontan (Fontana), Bandit (Bandito), Avariya (Avaria), Konsert (Concerto) not knowing that they are of Italian origin.

Regarding to the fields of their application (see Table 1), most of Italian words used in Azeri are related with music, theater and ballet (77, 59 %). These are such words as Akkord (Akkordo), Ariya (Aria), Konsert (Concerto), Opera (Opera), Operetta (Operetta), etc. Until beginning of the 20th century, the Azeri music was based on the ancient Oriental genres like Mugham (Makam) and others. Most of musical terms used in Azerbaijan were of the Azeri Turkish, Arabic and Persian origin. Italian musical terms began to spread in Azerbaijan in the beginning of the 20th century, when the classical European music like Opera, Operetta and Ballet emerged and started to develop in Azerbaijan.

 

The brilliant Azeri composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov (1885-1948) played a great part in this process. During the 1908-1920, he compiled such Azeri national operas and operettas as Leyli ve Majnun (Leyli and Majnun, 1908), O Olmasin bu Olsun (If Not This One, That One, 1911), Arshin Mal Alan (Cloth Peddler, 1913), etc. These works were based on the Azeri national music which was expressed by the European musical tongue like opera and operetta. Development of national opera and ballet was accompanied with adoption of Italian musical terms. For example, Uzeyir Hajibeyov wrote textbooks in Azeri on Solfeggio and other musical disciplines where he used many Italian musical terms. His work was continued by other famous Azeri composers like Muslim Magomayev, Kara Karayev and Fikret Amirov. However, the process of intensive inflow of Italian musical terms into Azeri was terminated in 1920-1930s.

 

Italian words from other fields are used in Azeri as well. For example: Avariya (Avaria), Bandit (Bandito), Fontan (Fontana), Freska (Fresco), Mafiya (Mafia), etc. Despite all these words came from Italian, now they are widely and actively used in Azeri, and became inseparable part of this language.

 

 

4. RESULTS

 

As a result of the resent study a total of 190 Italian words used in modern Azeri have been identified (Table 2). From them, 130 are root words adopted from Italian, while 60 are Azeri derivations from these words.

 

The identified words have been classified according to the field of their application (Table 1). Most of these words are related with arts, especially with music, theatre and ballet (104 words or 54,5 %), as well as with sculpture, painting and literature (20 words or 10,5%).

 

Table 1. Classification of Italian words used in Azeri.

FIELD

QUANTITY OF WORDS

%

music (MUS), theater (TEATRO) and ballet (COR)

77

59

sculpture (SCULT), painting (PITT), literature (LETT), ART, CERAM

11

8,5

Politic (POLIT) and history (ST)

6

4,6

biology: names of animals (ZOOL) and plants (BOT)

5

3,8

Finances (FIN, COMM)

5

3,8

Architecture (ARCH)

4

3

Food (GASTR)

4

3

Other or with no mark

18

14

TOTAL

130

100%

 

Azerbaijani alphabet and its short graphic-phonetic explanation.

 

The Azeri alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, except for ə, x, and q, which do not exist in Turkish. Stress normally falls on the last syllable of a word. Below is given the transcription of Azeri letters according to IPA system.

 

A a [ɑ:], B b [b], C c [ʤ], Ç ç [ʧ], D d [d], E e [ɛ], Ə ə [æ], F f [f], G g [gʲ], Ğ ğ [ɣ], H h [h], X x [x], I ı [ɯ], İ i [ɪ], J j [ʒ], K k [k], Q q [g], L l [l], M m [m], N n [n], O o [ɔ], Ö ö [œ], P p [p], R r [r], S s [s], Ş ş [ʃ], T t [t], U u [u], Ü ü [y], V v [v], Y y [j], Z z [z]

Table 2. List of Italian words used in Azeri.

 

ABBREVIATIONS.

 

music (MUS), theater (TEATRO), ballet (COR), sculpture (SCULT), painting (PITT), literature (LETT), ART, CERAM, Politic (POLIT), history (ST), biology: names of animals (ZOOL), plants (BOT), Finances (FIN, COMM), Architecture (ARCH), Food (GASTR).

 

Normal Font Loan-words adopted from Italian.

Italic - Azeri derivations from these loan-words.

 

Sources

OD Orthographical dictionary [11]

Pers.com. Personal communication.

#

AZERI SPELLING

 

BASE ITALIANA DI PARTENZA

 

MEANING İN ENGLİSH

SOURCE

1

Adajio (MUS)

Adagio

Slow pace in music

OD: 22

2

Akkord (MUS)

Accordo

Chord

OD: 32

3

Alleqretto (MUS)

Allegretto

Moderately rapid pace in music

OD: 37

4

Alleqro (MUS)

Allegro

Rapid pace in music

OD: 37

5

Alto (MUS)

Alto

Alto

OD: 39

6

Andante (MUS)

Andante

Andante

OD: 41

7

Apassionata (MUS)

Appassionata

Kind of musical composition

OD: 48

8

Arxivolt (ARCH)

Archivolto

Jambs and lintels of an arch

OD: 48

9

Ariozo (MUS)

Arioso

Arioso

OD: 48

10

Aristro (MUS)

Aristro

Aristro (musical term)

OD: 48

11

Ariya (MUS)

Aria

Aria

OD: 48

12

Ariyetta (MUS)

Arietta

Arietta

OD: 48

13

Arlekin (TEATRO)

Arlecchino

Harlequin

OD: 48

14

Arpedcio (MUS)

Arpeggio

Arpeggio

OD: 49

15

Avariya

Avaria

Wreck, crush

OD: 57

16

Avizo (FIN)

Avviso

Letter to advice

OD: 58

17

Balerina (COR)

Ballerina

Female ballet-dancer

OD: 70

18

Balet (COR)

Balletto

Ballet

OD: 70

[

Baletçi

< Balletto

Ballet-master

OD: 70

 

Balet-nağıl

< Balletto

Ballet-tale

OD: 70

 

Balet-oratoriya

Balletto-oratorio

Ballet-oratorio

OD: 70]

19

Bal-kanto (MUS)

Bel canto

Bel canto

OD: 77

20

Banda

Banda

Band, gang

OD: 71

21

Bandit

Bandito

Bandit

OD: 71

[

Banditcəsinə

< Bandito

In bandit way, like a bandit

OD: 71]

22

Banditizm

Banditismo

Gangsterism

OD: 71

[

Banditlik

Banditismo

Gangsterism

OD: 71]

23

Bariton (MUS)

Baritono

Baritone

OD: 72

24

Barkarola (MUS)

Barcarola

Barcarole

OD: 72

25

Barokko (ARCH)

Barocco

Baroque

OD: 73

26

Bas (MUS)

Basso

Bass

OD: 73

27

Bas-bariton (MUS)

Basso-baritono

Bass-baritone

OD: 73

28

Belladon (BOT)

Belladonna

Belladonna

OD: 77

29

Belveder (ARCH)

Belvedere

Belvedere

OD: 78

30

Brokkoli (BOT)

Broccolo

Kind of cabbage

OD: 79

31

Çao

Ciao

Ciao

Pers. Com.

32

Do (MUS)

Do

Do (musical note)

OD: 176

33

Doj (ST)

Doge

Head of the Venetian or Genoese republics

OD: 179

34

Faqot (MUS)

Fagotto

Musical instrument

OD: 225

35

Faşist (POLIT)

Fascista

Fascist, Nazi

OD: 226

[

Faşistləşdirilmək

< Fascista

To be fascisized; to be turned into fascist.

OD: 226

 

Faşistləşdirilmiş

< Fascista

Fascisized; smb. who became like fascist; smth. which became like fascism

OD: 226

 

Faşistləşdirmə

< Fascista

Fascisization (introducing or spreading fascism)

OD: 226

 

Faşistləşdirmək

< Fascista

To spread fascism

OD: 226

 

Faşistləşmə

< Fascista

To turn into fascist

OD: 226

 

Faşistləşmək

< Fascista

To become fascisized ( like fascist)

OD: 226

 

Faşistləşmiş

< Fascista

Fascisized, one who became like fascist, similar to fascist

OD: 226

 

Faşistlik

< Fascismo

Fascism

OD: 226

 

Faşistpərəstlik

< Fascismo

Love of fascism

OD: 226]

36

Faşizm (POLIT)

Fascismo

Fascism

OD: 226

37

Fiasko

Fiasco

Fiasco (failure, disaster)

OD: 230

38

Fleyta (MUS)

Flauto

Flute (musical instrument)

OD: 234

[

Fleytaçalan

< Flauto

Flutist

OD: 234

 

Fleytaçı

< Flauto

Flutist

OD: 234]

39

Fontan (ARCH)

Fontana

Fountain

OD: 234

[

Fontanlama

< Fontana

Gushing, gushing force

OD: 234

 

Fontanlamaq

< Fontana

To gush, to gush force

OD: 234

 

Fontanvuran

< Fontana

Something that gushes, gushes force

OD: 234

 

Fontanvurma

< Fontana

Gushing, gushing force

OD: 234]

40

Forte (MUS)

Forte

Strongly, loudly

OD: 235

41

Fortepiano (MUS)

Forte + Piano

Piano

OD: 235

[

Fortepianoçu

< Forte + Piano

Pianist

OD: 235]

42

Fortissimo (MUS)

Fortissimo

Very loudly

OD: 235

43

Freska (PITT)

Fresco

Fresco

OD: 237

[

Freska-rəsm

< Fresco

Fresco-Picture

OD: 237]

44

Fuqa (MUS)

Fuga

Fug (musical composition)

OD: 237

45

Fuqato (MUS)

Fugato

Fugato (musical composition)

OD: 238

46

Getto

Ghetto

Ghetto

OD: 241

47

İmpressario (TEATRO, MUS)

Impresario

Impresario

OD: 302

48

Kadensiya (MUS)

Cadenza

Cadenza

OD: 320

49

Kansona (MUS)

Canzone

Canzone

OD: 323

50

Kansonette (MUS)

Canzonetta

Canzonet

OD: 323

51

Kantabile (MUS)

Cantabile

Cantabile

OD: 323

52

Kantata (MUS)

Cantata

Cantata

OD: 323

53

Kantilen (MUS)

Cantilena

Cantilena

OD: 323

54

Kapriççio (MUS)

Capriccio

Capriccio

OD: 323

55

Katakomba

Catacomba

Catacomb

OD: 323

56

Kavaler

Cavaliere

Cavalier

OD: 327

57

Kavatina (MUS)

Cavatina

Little aria

OD: 327

58

Kolorit (PITT)

Colorito

Coloring, color

OD: 344

[

Koloritli

< Colorito

Picturesque, vivid

OD: 344]

59

Komediant (TEATRO)

Commediante

Comedian (actor)

OD: 344

[

Komediantlıq

< Commediante

Hypocrisy, playing a part

OD: 344]

60

Konsert (MUS)

Concerto

Concert

OD: 347

[

Konsertarası

< Concerto

Between two parts of the concert

OD: 347]

61

Konsertino (MUS)

Concertino

Concertino

OD: 347

[

Konsertqabağı

< Concerto

Prior to concert, before the concert

OD: 347

 

Konsert-oçerk

< Concerto

Concerto-essay, concerto-story

OD: 347]

62

Konsert-rapsodiya (MUS)

Concerto-rapsodia

Concerto-rhapsody

OD: 347

[

Konsertrçi

< Concerto

Concertmaster

OD: 347]

63

Kontraband

Contrabbando

Contraband

OD: 348

or

Kontrabanda

Contrabando

Contraband

OD: 348

[

Kontrabandaçı

Contrabandist

OD: 348

 

Kontrabandaçılıq

 

Contraband as profession

OD: 348]

64

Kontrabas (MUS)

Contrabbasso

Contrabass

OD: 348

[

Kontrabasçalan

< Contrabbasso

Contrabassist

OD: 348]

65

Kontrafaqot (MUS)

Contrafaqotto

Contrafagot

OD: 348

66

Kontralto (MUS)

Contralto

Contralto

OD: 348

67

Kvartet (MUS)

Quartetto

Quartette

OD: 362

[

Kvartet-poema

Quartetto-poema

Quartette-poem

OD: 362]

68

Kvattroçento (MUS, LETT, ART)

Quattrocento

Quattro cento

OD: 362

69

Kvintet (MUS)

Quimtetto

Quintet

OD: 362

70

Qlissando (MUS)

Glissando

Glissando

OD: 401

71

Qondola

Gondola

Gondola

OD: 403

[

Qondolaçı

gondoliere

Gondolier

OD: 403]

72

Qranat

Granata

Grenade (little bomb)

OD: 408

[

Qranatatan

< Granata

Grenade cup discharger, grenade thrower.

OD: 408]

73

Qranit (MINERAL)

Granito

Granite

OD: 408

[

Qranitləşmə

< Granito

Turning into granite

OD: 408]

74

Larqo (MUS)

Largo

Largo

OD: 408

75

Leqato (MUS)

Legato

Legato

OD: 419

76

Libretto (MUS)

Libretto

Libretto

OD: 423

[

Librettoçu

< Libretto

Librettist

OD: 423]

77

Lirə (FIN)

Lira

Lira (money)

OD: 424

78

Madonna (RELIG)

Madonna

Madonna

OD: 428

79

Madrepor (ZOOL)

Madrepora

Madrepora (species of corals)

OD: 428

80

Maestro (MUS)

Maestro

Maestro

OD: 428

81

Mafioz

Mafiosi

Mafiosi

OD: 428

82

Mafiya

Mafia

Mafia

OD: 428

 

Mafiyaçı

Mafiosi

Mafiosi

OD: 428]

83

Makaron (GASTR)

Maccharoni

Macaroni (food)

OD: 429

84

Makaronizm (LETT)

Stile maccharonico

The Macaroni Style (in literature)

OD: 429

85

Makiavellizm (POLIT)

Machiavellismo

Machiavellism

OD: 429

86

Makkiavellist (POL)

Machiavellista

Machiavellist

OD: 429

87

Makkiya (BOT)

Macchia

Macchia (botanical term)

OD: 429

88

Mandolina (MUS)

Mandolino

Mandolin (musical instrument)

OD: 432

[

Mandolinaçalan

< Mandolino

Mandolin player

OD: 432

 

Mandolinaçı

< Mandolino

Mandolin player

OD: 432]

89

Marina (PITT, ART)

Marina

Marine (canvas with image of the sea)

OD: 433

90

Marinist (LETT)

Marinista

Marinist (artist creating pictures of the sea).

OD: 433

91

Marinizm (POLIT)

Marinismo

Marinism ( literary current of imitators of the poet Marino)

OD: 433

92

Maskaron (ARCH)

Mascherone

The sculptural decoration in the form of 13 masks with images of the human or animal face.

OD: 434

93

Mayolika (CERAM)

Maiolica

Majolica (ceramic from color clay)

OD: 436

94

Messo (MUS)

Mezzo

Mezzo

OD: 438

95

Messo-soprano (MUS)

Mezzosoprano

Mezzo-soprano

OD: 438

96

Messo-tinto (PITT)

Mezzotinto

Mezzotint

OD: 438

97

Netto (COMM)

Netto

Pure weight

OD: 479

98

Nonet (MUS)

Nonetto

Musical composition for nine instruments or voices.

OD: 487

99

Novella (LETT)

Novella

Novella

OD: 487

[

Novellaçı

< Novella

Novellist

OD: 487

 

Novella-dram

< Novella

Novella-drama

OD: 487

 

Novella-xatirə

< Novella

Novella-reminiscence

OD: 487

 

Novella-oçerk

< Novella

Novella-essay

OD: 487]

100

Oktet (MUS)

Ottetto

Octet

OD: 493

101

Opera (MUS)

Opera

Opera

OD: 495

102

Opera-balet (MUS, COR)

Opera-balletto

Opera-ballet

OD: 495

103

Opera-buff (MUS)

Opera buffa

Opera-buff

OD: 495

[

Operaçılıq

< Opera

Composing opera

OD: 495]

104

Opera-dram (MUS)

Opera-dramma

Opera-drama

OD: 495

[

Opera-əfsanə

< Opera

Opera-legend

OD: 495]

105

Opera-kantata (MUS)

Opera-cantata

Opera-cantata

OD: 495

106

Opera-komediya (MUS)

Opera-comedia

Opera-comedy

OD: 495

[

Operalaşma

< Opera

Turning into opera, becoming like opera

OD: 495

 

Opera-nağıl

< Opera

Opera-tale

OD: 495]

107

Opera-oratoriya (MUS)

Opera-oratorio

Opera-oratorio

OD: 495

108

Opera-poema (MUS)

Opera-poema

Opera-poem

OD: 495

[

Operasevər

< Opera

Opera lover, opera fan

OD: 495

 

Operavarı

< Opera

Like opera, similar to opera

OD: 495]

109

Opera-vodevil (MUS)

Opera-vaudeville

Opera-vaudeville

OD: 495

110

Operetta (MUS)

Operetta

Operetta

OD: 495

111

Passakalya (MUS)

Passacaglia

Old dance of Hispanic origin.

OD: 512

112

Pasta (GASTR)

Pasta

Pasta

OD: 512

113

Pianino (MUS)

Pianino

Piano (musical instrument)

OD: 520

[

Pianinoçalan

< Pianino

Pianist, piano player.

OD: 520

 

Pianoçu

< Piano

Pianist (see Pianoçalan)

OD: 520

 

Pianoçu-illüstrator

< Piano

Pianist-illustrator

OD: 520

 

Pianoçuluq

< Piano

The profession of pianist

OD: 520]

114

Pizza (GASTR)

Pizza

Pizza

Pers. com.

115

Plastilin (ART)

Plastilina

Plasticine (mass from clay, wax and oil).

OD: 523

116

Pomidor (BOT)

Pomidoro

Tomatoes

OD: 526

[

Pomidorlu

< Pomidoro

With tomatoes

OD: 526

 

Pomidoryığan

< Pomidoro

Collector of tomatoes

OD: 526

 

Pomodorluq

< Pomidoro

Tomatoes plantation

OD: 526]

117

Primadonna (TEATRO)

Primadonna

Prima Donna

OD: 529

118

Saldo (FIN)

Saldo

Balance

OD: 550

119

Salto

Salto

Somersault

OD: 551

120

Solo (MUS)

Solo

Solo

OD: 580

121

Spagetti (GASTR)

Spaghetti

Spaghetti

OD: 585

122

Ssenari (TEATRO)

Scenario

Scenario

OD: 585

[

Ssenariçilik

< Scenario

Producing of scenario

OD: 585]

123

Ssenarist (TEATRO)

Scenarista

Scenarist

OD: 585

[

Ssenaristlik

< Scenario

Producing of scenario

OD: 585]

124

Temp

Tempo

Rate

OD: 621

125

Tenor (MUS)

Tenore

Tenor

OD: 621

126

Tenor-bariton (MUS)

Tenore-baritono

Tenor-baritone

OD: 621

127

Terrakota (CERAM)

Terracotta

Terracotta

OD: 622

128

Unison (MUS)

Unison

Unison

OD: 655

129

Viola (MUS)

Viola

Viola

OD: 674

130

Violonçel (MUS)

Violoncello

Violoncello

OD: 674

[

Violonçelçalan

Violoncellista

Violoncellist

OD: 674

 

Violonçelçi

Violoncellista

Violoncellist

OD: 674]

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Alakbarov, Farid

2000 The Institute of Manuscripts: Early Alphabets in Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan International Magazine, 8.1: 50-53.

 

Efendiyev, Oktay

1981 The Azerbaijani Safavid State in the Beginning of the 16th Century, Baku, Elm [in Russian].

 

Glossary of Foreign Words

Glossary of Foreign Words, Moscow, Russkiy Yazik Press, 198918 [in Russian].

 

History of Azerbaijan

History of Azerbaijan, Ed. Igrar Aliyev, Baku, Elm Press, 2002, 3. voll. [in Azeri].

 

Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary

Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary, Baku, 2006.

 

Kalankatuaci, Moses

1961 History of the Caucasian Albanians, Translated by C.J.F. Dowset, London, Oxford University Press.

 

OD

Orthographical Dictionary of Azeri, Ed. A. Akhundov, Baku, Lider Press, 2004 [in Azeri].

 

Petrushevski, I.P.

1949 Azerbaijani States in the 15th century, in Collection of Articles on the History of Azerbaijan, Part. 1, Baku 1949: 179 P. [in Russian].

 

 

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