Prof. Dr. FARID ALAKBARLI
Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Azerbaijan is a country at crossroads of numerous cultures, religions and civilizations. Since antiquity this land was known as a bridge between Europe and Asia. In the 2nd millennium BC, Azerbaijan was located on the path of migrations of Indo-European and Caucasian peoples. From the 4th century BC to 7th century AD, it was famous as important center of Zoroastrianism. In different periods, the Scythian, Hun, Mongolian, Seljuk and Turcoman tribes invaded Azerbaijan and settled here. Silk Road, the caravan way from China to Europe passed through Azerbaijan. Various races, nations, cultures, religions and languages met and mixed here. Such religions as Zoroastrianism, Shamanism, Islam and Christianity, and such languages as Assyrian, Turkic, Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, Greek, Russian, Italian, Hebrew and German coexisted and influenced each other in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani (or Azeri) is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is spoken in some other countries. According to statistics from 2009 there are approximately 40 to 47 million native Azerbaijani speakers in the World. Huge population lives in Iran (circa 26 to 33 million). Around 8 million live in Azerbaijan Republic, and 6 millions in Turkey, Georgia, Russia, USA, Canada, Germany and other countries. In addition, Azeri is mutually intelligible with other Oghuz languages, which include the Turkish language as it is spoken in Turkey, the Caucasus, Cyprus, the Balkans, Iraq, Syria, and Western Europe, as well as the Turkmen language. The total number of people speaking Oghuz languages (Azeri, Turkish, Turkmen and some other small Oghuz languages) is around 120-125 million individuals and 40-47 millions of them are Azeris.
As it has been already noted Azeri is a Turkic language of the Oghuz branch, closely related to Turkish and also historically influenced by Persian and Arabic. It is an agglutinative language. In other words, morphemes (word units) are added (usually as suffixes) to modify the meaning of words. Prehistory of Oghuz languages is related with the Orkhon-Yenisey runic inscriptions which date back to the 5th-7th centuries AD, and the early-medieval heroic epos "Kitabi-Dede Korkut" (The Book of My Grandfather Korkut).
During the Middle Ages, the literary Oguz (proto-Azeri) was developed by such poets as Hasanoglu (Pur-Hasan) -13th c., Imadaddin Nasimi or Nesimi (1370-1417), Shah Ismail Khatai (1487-1524) and Fuzuli (1493-1156). It was complicated language of aristocratic elite, which was not clear for a wide-range of common people in Azerbaijan. The folk Azeri language was developed by Ashugs (minstrels) like Molla Panah Vagif (1717-1797) whose amazing lyrical verses are still popular in Azerbaijan.
During the first half of the 20th century, the new literary Azeri based on the lively folk language was finally formed. In 1923 AD, alphabet in Azerbaijan was changed from Arabic to Latin, and it greatly contributed to process of Westernization in all spheres of life (Alakbarov 2000). The European science, culture and music became spread in Azerbaijan, and Western scientific terms were adopted. Namely in this period many Italian words penetrated into scientific and cultural lexica of Azerbaijan. After 1930s, there were not essential changes in vocabulary of literary Azeri.
Despite Azeri is the Turkic language, many words were adopted from Arabic and Persian during the Middle Ages. These words constitute almost 50% of the literary Azeri. As from the second half of the 19th century, some words penetrated into Azeri from Russian, English, French, Italian and other Western languages. During 1980-2007, few words were adopted also from Turkish of Turkey which is the related to Azeri language. However, the European and Turkish loan-words are not numerous and constitute only about 2 % of modern Azeri.
Relations between Azerbaijan and Italy have very ancient history, which dates back to the era of Roman Empire. Despite the Italian and Azeri languages did not exist in those times, texts in Latin were found in Azerbaijan. For example in the Gobustan National Park near Baku was discovered a stone with Latin inscription that dates back to the 1st century AD: "Emperor Domitianus, the Blessed Caesar Germanicus. Livius Maximus, Legio XII Fulminata".Р С—РЎвЂ”Р вЂ¦ It proves that some Roman legions could reach the areas around Baku in the 1st century AD. According to Strabo, in 65 BC the Roman General Pompey invaded Kingdom of Caucasian Albania (the present-day Northern Azerbaijan) and was at war with its king Orois.
The Emperor Mark Anthony struggled against Artavasdes I, the ruler of Media Atropatene (the Hellenistic kingdom in Southern Azerbaijan) and was defeated. However in 35 BC Rome and Azerbaijan became allies against the Parthian Empire. Alexander Helios, the son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, was engaged with Iotapa, the daughter of Artavasdes, the king of Atropatene (see History of Azerbaijan 2002).
In the 4th century AD, the Caucasian Albania kingdom (the present-day Northern Azerbaijan) adopted Christianity. During the early medieval period this Orthodox country had the tight political and cultural relations with Byzantium (Kalankatuaci 1961). From Constantinople they got religious, secular and scientific literature in Latin and Greek. In 5th Р С— 6th centuries, Latin was taught in church schools of Caucasian Albania. For example, "Eneida" by Vergilius and other Latin authors were studied. In the 7th-8th centuries, Azerbaijan was conquered by Arabs and converted to Islam, after which Latin lost its importance, and was replaced by Arabic.
One of villages around Baku is named Romani. This word may be associated with Rome and the Romans legions which visited Baku in the 1st century AD or later. Besides, under the term "Romans" might be mentioned the Eastern Roman Empire, i.e. Byzantium. The official self-name of this state was not Byzantium, but the Roman Empire, and this country was named "Rum", "Roman", "Ruman" in Azeri too. The ruler of Northern Azerbaijan shirvanshah Akhsitan I Kesranid (ruled in 1160-1196 AD) was the cousin of the Emperor Andronic Comnen, and in 1174 AD the Byzantine troops came to Baku to help Akhsitan to beat off the invasion of Russian fleet. The toponym "Ramani" might appear as a result of such contacts (see History of Azerbaijan 2002).
Since the 12th century, relations of Azerbaijan with Rome, Venetian and Genoese Republics started to develop. In the 13th century, Marco Polo (1254-1323?) wrote about the famous kinds of silk produced in the Shirvan province of Azerbaijan. In those times, Genoese traders founded their colonies on the shores of Caspian. They bargained silk, carpets, jewelry and other goods. Italians even had vessels in Caspian. During the rule of sheikh Uveis Jalairid (1356-1374), the Genoese merchants owned lands in the vicinity of Tabriz, the capital of Southern Azerbaijan, and even attempted to build a castle near this city (Petrushevski 1949).
The first Venetian ambassador in Azerbaijan was Ambrogio Contarini (died in 1499). In 1474 he was forwarded to the court of Uzun Hasan Akkoyunlu (Hasan the Long), the king of Azerbaijan who controlled the western Iran and Iraq. The ambassador tried to persuade Uzun Hasan to start a war against Ottoman Empire in alliance with the Republic of Venetia. In 1487, Contarini published a book about his travel to Azerbaijan, Persia, Russia and other countries (Petrushevski 1949).
Relations between Rome, Venetian Republic and Azerbaijan strengthened during the rule of Shah Ismail I Safavid (1487-1524), the Azeri ruler of Iran. Shah Ismail was born in Aradabil city in Southern Azerbaijan. After 1500 AD, Ismail captured royal power in Azerbaijan and entire Iran. Then, he was visited by ambassadors from Papas and Venetian Doge who tried to involve him in the war against Ottoman Empire (Efendiyev 1981). Shah Ismail wrote lyrical verses in Azeri under the pseudonym Khatayi, where he used some Roman words like "Keysar" ("Caesar"), "Rum" ("Rome"), etc.
Starting from the second half of the 19th century AD, influence of European culture in Azerbaijan became even stronger. The essential influence of Italian to Azeri begins from 20th century with increasing Westernization in all spheres of life in Azerbaijan. Some classical buildings in the center of Baku were built in the end of the 19th and beginning of 20th by the Italian architects. In 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was declared, and in 1919 the embassy of Azerbaijan in Italy was created. In 1920, Azerbaijan was annexed by Soviet Russia. The embassy was reopened in 1990s after regaining of independence.
2. Lexicographic situation and methods of identification of Italianisms in Azerbaijani.
The linguistic relations of Azeri with Russian, Arabic, Persian and French have been studied in certain extent. However the Azeri-Italian linguistic communications were not satisfactorily investigated.
To establish a total number of Italian words used in Azeri the "Orthographical Dictionary of Azerbaijani" has been studied. The last edition of this dictionary includes almost all words which are used in literary Azeri. It contains about 80 000 lexical units. The difficulty of this work was related with the fact that the orthographical dictionary gives only alphabetical list of Azeri words without explanation of their origins and meanings. Therefore for identifying the Italian words used in Azeri, the additional literature was analyzed. The Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary and Glossary of Foreign Words have been analyzed as well.
Besides, the OD does not include words which are not used in the literary language, i.e. non-formal, jargon, slang and dialect words. Despite almost all Italian words used in Azeri are parts of literary language, a few words are used in slang too. As these words are used orally, they have been included in the list of Italian words used in Azeri with the "pers. com" (personal communication) notification.
3. Italianisms in Azerbaijani language.
As a result of the present study a total of 130 root words of Italian origin have been found in Azeri. Most of these words penetrated into Azeri through Russian when Azerbaijan was the part of the Russian Empire (1813-1918). This process continued after declaration of the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920), and when the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic became the part of the Soviet Union (1922-1991).
60 Azeri derivations of these words have been identified too. These derivations were created by adding Azeri endings (mostly suffixes) to Italian loan-words.
For example, the Azeri verb Fontanlamaq (to gush, to gush force) was created from the Italian noun Fontan (Fontana). Other examples: the nouns Fleytaçi (Flutist) and Fleytaçalan (Flutist, Flute player) are derived from the Italian loan-word Fleyta (Flauto) with the help of two Azeri endings "çi" (corresponds to the English "ist" in Flutist) and "çalan" ("music performer", "musician"). The word Komediantlıq (hypocrisy, playing a part) was created by adding the Azeri ending "lıq" to the adopted Italian word Komediant (Commediante). The complex word Konsertarası (between the parts of the Concert) consists from two words: the Italian word Concerto and the Azeri word Arası (between, in the middle).
Creation of so many Azeri derivations from the adopted Italian words proves that these words are completely integrated into Azeri. Common people use such words as Fontan (Fontana), Bandit (Bandito), Avariya (Avaria), Konsert (Concerto) not knowing that they are of Italian origin.
Regarding to the fields of their application (see Table 1), most of Italian words used in Azeri are related with music, theater and ballet (77, 59 %). These are such words as Akkord (Akkordo), Ariya (Aria), Konsert (Concerto), Opera (Opera), Operetta (Operetta), etc. Until beginning of the 20th century, the Azeri music was based on the ancient Oriental genres like Mugham (Makam) and others. Most of musical terms used in Azerbaijan were of the Azeri Turkish, Arabic and Persian origin. Italian musical terms began to spread in Azerbaijan in the beginning of the 20th century, when the classical European music like Opera, Operetta and Ballet emerged and started to develop in Azerbaijan.
The brilliant Azeri composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov (1885-1948) played a great part in this process. During the 1908-1920, he compiled such Azeri national operas and operettas as "Leyli ve Majnun" (Leyli and Majnun, 1908), "O Olmasin bu Olsun" (Not This One, That One, 1911), "Arshin Mal Alan" (Cloth Peddler, 1913), etc. These works were based on the Azeri national music which was expressed by the European "musical tongue" like opera and operetta. Development of national opera and ballet was accompanied with adoption of Italian musical terms. For example, Uzeyir Hajibeyov wrote textbooks in Azeri on Solfeggio and other musical disciplines where he used many Italian musical terms. His work was continued by other famous Azeri composers like Muslim Magomayev, Kara Karayev and Fikret Amirov. However, the process of intensive inflow of Italian musical terms into Azeri was terminated in 1920-1930s.
Italian words from other fields are used in Azeri as well. For example: Avariya (Avaria), Bandit (Bandito), Fontan (Fontana), Freska (Fresco), Mafiya (Mafia), etc. Despite all these words came from Italian, now they are widely and actively used in Azeri, and became inseparable part of this language.
As a result of the resent study a total of 190 Italian words used in modern Azeri have been identified (Table 2). From them, 130 are root words adopted from Italian, while 60 are Azeri derivations from these words.
The identified words have been classified according to the field of their application (Table 1). Most of these words are related with arts, especially with music, theatre and ballet (104 words or 54,5 %), as well as with sculpture, painting and literature (20 words or 10,5%).
Table 1. Classification of Italian words used in Azeri.
|Music (MUS), theater (TEATRO), ballet (COR)||77||59,0|
|Sculpture (SCULT), painting (PITT), literature (LETT), art (ART), ceramics (CERAM)||11||8,5|
|Politic (POLIT), and history (ST)||6||4,6|
|Biology: names of animals (Zool) and plants (BOT)||5||3,8|
|Finances (FIN, COMM)||5||3,8|
|Other or with no mark||18||14,0|
Azerbaijani alphabet and its short graphic-phonetic explanation.
The Azerbaijani alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, except for ə, x, and q, which do not exist in Turkish. Stress normally falls on the last syllable of a word. Below is giventhe transcription of Azeri letters according to IPA system.
A a [ɑ:], B b [b], C c [ʤ], Ç ç [ʧ], , E e [ɛ], Ə ə [æ], F f [f], G g [gʲ], Ğ ğ [ɣ], H h [h], X x [x], I ı [ɯ], İ i [ɪ], J j [ʒ], K k [k], Q q [g], L l [l], M m [m], N n [n], O o [ɔ], Ö ö [œ], P p [p], R r [r], S s [s], Ş ş [ʃ], T t [t], U u[u], Ü ü [y], V v [v], Y y [j], Z z [z]
Table 2. List of Italian words used in Azerbaijani.
Music (MUS), theater (TEATRO), ballet (COR), sculpture (SCULT), painting (PITT), literature (LETT), art (ART), ceramics (CERAM), Politic (POLIT), history (ST), biology: names of animals (ZOOL), plants (BOT), Finances (FIN, COMM), Architecture (ARCH), Food (GASTR).
Normal Font - Loan-words adopted from Italian.
Italic - Azeri derivations from these loan-words.
Orthographical dictionary 
Pers. com. Personal communication.
|Meaning in English
|1.||Adajio (MUS)||Adagio||Slow pace in music||OD: 22|
|2.||Akkord (MUS)||Accordo||Chord||OD: 32|
|3.||Alleqretto (MUS)||Allegretto||Moderately rapid pace in music||OD: 37|
|4.||Alleqro (MUS)||Allegro||Rapid pace in music||OD: 37|
|5.||Alto (MUS)||Alto||Alto||OD: 39|
|6.||Andante (MUS)||Andante||Andante||OD: 41|
|7.||Apassionata (MUS)||Appassionata||Kind of musical composition||OD: 48|
|8.||Arxivolt (ARCH)||Archivolto||Jambs and lintels of an arch||OD: 48|
|9.||Ariozo (MUS)||Arioso||Arioso||OD: 48|
|10.||Aristro (MUS)||Aristro||Aristro (musical term)||OD: 48|
|11.||Ariya (MUS)||Aria||Aria||OD: 48|
|12.||Ariyetta (MUS)||Arietta||Arietta||OD: 48|
|13.||Arlekin (TEATRO)||Arlecchino||Harlequin||OD: 48|
|14.||Arpedcio (MUS)||Arpeggio||Arpeggio||OD: 49|
|15.||Avariya||Avaria||Wreck, crush||OD: 57|
|16.||Avizo (FIN)||Avviso||Letter to advice||OD: 58|
|17.||Balerina (COR)||Ballerina||Female ballet-dancer||OD: 70|
|18.||Balet (COR)||Balletto||Ballet||OD: 70|
|[ Baletçi||< Balletto||Ballet-master||OD: 70|
|Balet-nağıl||< Balletto||Ballet-tale||OD: 70|
|19.||Bal-kanto (MUS)||Bel canto||Bel canto||OD: 77|
|20.||Banda||Banda||Band, gang||OD: 71|
|[ Banditcəsinə||< Bandito||In bandit way, like a bandit||OD: 71]|
|[ Banditlik||Banditismo||Gangsterism||OD: 71]|
|23.||Bariton (MUS)||Baritono||Baritone||OD: 72|
|24.||Barkarola (MUS)||Barcarola||Barcarole||OD: 72|
|25.||Barokko (ARCH)||Barocco||Baroque||OD: 73|
|26.||Bas (MUS)||Basso||Bass||OD: 73|
|27.||Bas-bariton (MUS)||Basso-baritono||Bass-baritone||OD: 73|
|28.||Belladon (BOT)||Belladonna||Belladonna||OD: 77|
|29.||Belveder (ARCH)||Belvedere||Belvedere||OD: 78|
|30.||Brokkoli (BOT)||Broccolo||Kind of cabbage||OD: 79|
|32.||Do (MUS)||Do||Do (musical note)||OD: 176|
|33.||Doj (ST)||Doge||Head of the Venetian or Genoese republics||OD: 179|
|34.||Faqot (MUS)||Fagotto||Musical instrument||OD: 225|
|35.||Faşist (POLIT)||Fascista||Fascist, Nazi||OD: 226|
|[ Faşistləşdirilmək||< Fascista||To be fascisized; to be turned into fascist.||OD: 226|
|Faşistləşdirilmiş||< Fascista||Fascisized; smb. who became like fascist; smth. which became like fascism||OD: 226|
|Faşistləşdirmə||< Fascista||Fascisization (introducing or spreading fascism)||OD: 226|
|Faşistləşdirmək||< Fascista||To spread fascism||OD: 226|
|Faşistləşmə||< Fascista||To turn into fascist||OD: 226|
|Faşistləşmək||< Fascista||To become fascisized (like fascist)||OD: 226|
|Faşistləşmiş||< Fascista||Fascisized, one who became like fascist, similar to fascist||OD: 226|
|Faşistlik||< Fascismo||Fascism||OD: 226|
|Faşistpərəstlik||< Fascismo||Love of fascism||OD: 226]|
|36.||Faşizm (POLIT)||Fascismo||Fascism||OD: 226|
|37.||Fiasko||Fiasco||Fiasco (failure, disaster)||OD: 230|
|38.||Fleyta (MUS)||Flauto||Flute (musical instrument)||OD: 234|
|[ Fleytaçalan||< Flauto||Flutist||OD: 234|
|Fleytaçı||< Flauto||Flutist||OD: 234]|
|39.||Fontan (ARCH)||Fontana||Fountain||OD: 234|
|[ Fontanlama||< Fontana||Gushing, gushing force||OD: 234|
|Fontanlamaq||< Fontana||To gush, to gush force||OD: 234|
|Fontanvuran||< Fontana||Something that gushes, gushes force||OD: 234|
|Fontanvurma||< Fontana||Gushing, gushing force||OD: 234]|
|40.||Forte (MUS)||Forte||Strongly, loudly||OD: 235|
|41.||Fortepiano (MUS)||Forte + Piano||Piano||OD: 235|
|[ Fortepianoçu||< Forte + Piano||Pianist||OD: 235]|
|42.||Fortissimo (MUS)||Fortissimo||Very loudly||OD: 235|
|43.||Freska (PITT)||Fresco||Fresco||OD: 237|
|[ Freska-rəsm||< Fresco||Fresco-Picture||OD: 237]|
|44.||Fuqa (MUS)||Fuga||Fug (musical composition)||OD: 237|
|45.||Fuqato (MUS)||Fugato||Fugato (musical composition)||OD: 238|
|47.||İmpressario (TEATRO, MUS)||Impresario||Impresario||OD: 302|
|48.||Kadensiya (MUS)||Cadenza||Cadenza||OD: 320|
|49.||Kansona (MUS)||Canzone||Canzone||OD: 323|
|50.||Kansonette (MUS)||Canzonetta||Canzonet||OD: 323|
|51.||Kantabile (MUS)||Cantabile||Cantabile||OD: 323|
|52.||Kantata (MUS)||Cantata||Cantata||OD: 323|
|53.||Kantilen (MUS)||Cantilena||Cantilena||OD: 323|
|54.||Kapriççio (MUS)||Capriccio||Capriccio||OD: 323|
|57.||Kavatina (MUS)||Cavatina||Little aria||OD: 327|
|58.||Kolorit (PITT)||Colorito||Coloring, color||OD: 344|
|[ Koloritli||< Colorito||Picturesque, vivid||OD: 344]|
|59.||Komediant (TEATRO)||Commediante||Comedian (actor)||OD: 344|
|[ Komediantlıq||< Commediante||Hypocrisy, playing a part||OD: 344]|
|60.||Konsert (MUS)||Concerto||Concert||OD: 347|
|[ Konsertarası||< Concerto||Between two parts of the concert||OD: 347]|
|61.||Konsertino (MUS)||Concertino||Concertino||OD: 347|
|[ Konsertqabağı||< Concerto||Prior to concert, before the concert||OD: 347|
|Konsert-oçerk (MUS)||< Concerto||Concerto-essay, concerto-story||OD: 347]|
|62.||Konsert-rapsodiya (MUS)||Concerto-rapsodia||Concerto-rhapsody||OD: 347|
|[ Konsertrçi||< Concerto||Concertmaster||OD: 347]|
|or Kontrabanda||Contrabando||Contraband||OD: 348|
|[ Kontrabandaçı||< Contrabando||Contrabandist||OD: 348|
|Kontrabandaçılıq||< Contrabando||Contraband as profession||OD: 348]|
|64.||Kontrabas (MUS)||Contrabbasso||Contrabbass||OD: 348|
|[ Kontrabasçalan||< Contrabbasso||Contrabassist||OD: 348]|
|65.||Kontrafaqot (MUS)||Contrafaqotto||Contrafagot||OD: 348|
|66.||Kontralto (MUS)||Contralto||Contralto||OD: 348|
|67.||Kvartet (MUS)||Quartetto||Quartette||OD: 362|
|[ Kvartet-poema||Quartetto-poema||Quartette-poem||OD: 362]|
|68.||Kvattroçento (MUS, LETT, ART)||Quattrocento||Quattro cento||OD: 362|
|69.||Kvintet (MUS)||Quimtetto||Quintet||OD: 362|
|70.||Qlissando (MUS)||Glissando||Glissando||OD: 401|
|[ Qondolaçı||Gondoliere||Gondolier||OD: 403]|
|72.||Qranat||Granata||Grenade (little bomb)||OD: 408|
|[ Qranatatan||< Granata||Grenade cup discharger, grenade thrower.||OD: 408]|
|73.||Qranit (MINERAL)||Granito||Granite||OD: 408|
|74.||Larqo (MUS)||Largo||Largo||OD: 408|
|75.||Leqato (MUS)||Legato||Legato||OD: 419|
|76.||Libretto (MUS)||Libretto||Libretto||OD: 423|
|[ Librettoçu||< Libretto||Librettist||OD: 423]|
|77.||Lirə (FIN)||Lira||Lira (money)||OD: 424|
|78.||Madonna (RELIG)||Madonna||Madonna||OD: 428|
|79.||Madrepor (ZOOL)||Madrepora||Madrepora (species of corals)||OD: 428|
|80.||Maestro (MUS)||Maestro||Maestro||OD: 428|
|[ Mafiyaçı||Mafiosi||Mafiosi||OD: 428]|
|83.||Makaron (GASTR)||Maccharoni||Macaroni (food)||OD: 429|
|84.||Makaronizm (LETT)||Stile maccharonico||The Macaroni Style (in literature)||OD: 429|
|85.||Makiavellizm (POLIT)||Machiavellismo||Machiavellism||OD: 429|
|86.||Makkiavellist (POL)||Machiavellista||Machiavellist||OD: 429|
|87.||Makkiya (BOT)||Macchia||Macchia (botanical term)||OD: 429|
|88.||Mandolina (MUS)||Mandolino||Mandolin (musical instrument)||OD: 432|
|[ Mandolinaçalan||< Mandolino||Mandolin player||OD: 432|
|Mandolinaçı||< Mandolino||Mandolin player||OD: 432]|
|89.||Marina (PITT, ART)||Marina||Marine (canvas with image of the sea)||OD: 433|
|90.||Marinist||Marinista||Marinist (artist creating pictures of the sea).||OD: 433|
|91.||Marinizm (POLIT)||Marinismo||Marinism (literary current of imitators of the poet Marino)||OD: 433|
|92.||Maskaron (ARCH)||Mascherone||The sculptural decoration in the form of 13 masks with images of the human or animal face.||OD: 434|
|93.||Mayolika (CERAM)||Maiolica||Majolica (ceramic from color clay)||OD: 436|
|94.||Messo (MUS)||Mezzo||Mezzo||OD: 438|
|95.||Messo-soprano (MUS)||Mezzosoprano||Mezzo-soprano||OD: 438|
|96.||Messo-tinto (PITT)||Mezzotinto||Mezzotint||OD: 438|
|97.||Netto (COMM)||Netto||Pure weight||OD: 479|
|98.||Nonet (MUS)||Nonetto||Musical composition for nine instruments or voices.||OD: 487|
|99.||Novella (LETT)||Novella||Novella||OD: 487|
|100.||Oktet (MUS)||Ottetto||Octet||OD: 493|
|101.||Opera (MUS)||Opera||Opera||OD: 495|
|102.||Opera-balet (MUS, COR)||Opera-balletto||Opera-ballet||OD: 495|
|103.||Opera-buff (MUS)||Opera buffa||Opera-buff||OD: 495|
|[ Operaçılıq||< Opera||Composing opera||OD: 495]|
|104.||Opera-dram (MUS)||Opera-dramma||Opera-drama||OD: 495|
|[ Opera-əfsanə||< Opera||Opera-legend||OD: 495]|
|105.||Opera-kantata (MUS)||Opera-cantata||Opera-cantata||OD: 495|
|106.||Opera-komediya (MUS)||Opera-comedia||Opera-comedy||OD: 495|
|[ Operalaşma||< Opera||Turning into opera, becoming like opera||OD: 495|
|Opera-nağıl||< Opera||Opera-tale||OD: 495]|
|107.||Opera-oratoriya (MUS)||Opera-oratorio||Opera-oratorio||OD: 495|
|108.||Opera-poema (MUS)||Opera-poema||Opera-poem||OD: 495|
|[ Operasevər||< Opera||Opera lover, opera fan||OD: 495|
|Operavarı||< Opera||Like opera, similar to opera||OD: 495]|
|109.||Opera-vodevil (MUS)||Opera-vaudeville||Opera-vaudeville||OD: 495|
|110.||Operetta (MUS)||Operetta||Operetta||OD: 495|
|111.||Passakalya (MUS)||Passacaglia||Old dance of Hispanic origin.||OD: 512|
|112.||Pasta (GASTR)||Pasta||Pasta||OD: 512|
|113.||Pianino (MUS)||Pianino||Piano (musical instrument)||OD: 520|
|[ Pianinoçalan||< Pianino||Pianist, piano player.||OD: 520|
|Pianoçu||< Piano||Pianist (see Pianoçalan)||OD: 520|
|Pianoçu-illüstrator||< Piano||Pianist-illustrator||OD: 520|
|Pianoçuluq||< Piano||The profession of pianist||OD: 520]|
|114.||Pizza (GASTR)||Pizza||Pizza||Pers. com.|
|115.||Plastilin (ART)||Plastilina||Plasticine (mass from clay, wax and oil).||OD: 523|
|116.||Pomidor (BOT)||Pomidoro||Tomatoes||OD: 526|
|[ Pomidorlu||< Pomidoro||With tomatoes||OD: 526|
|Pomidoryığan||< Pomidoro||Collector of tomatoes||OD: 526|
|Pomodorluq||< Pomidoro||Tomatoes plantation||OD: 526]|
|117.||Primadonna (TEATRO)||Primadonna||Prima Donna||OD: 529|
|118.||Saldo (FIN)||Balance||Prima Donna||OD: 529|
|120.||Solo (MUS)||Solo||Solo||OD: 580|
|121.||Spagetti (GASTR)||Spaghetti||Spaghetti||OD: 585|
|122.||Ssenari (TEATRO)||Scenario||Scenario||OD: 585|
|[ Ssenariçilik||< Scenario||Producing of scenario||OD: 585]|
|123.||Ssenarist (TEATRO)||Scenarista||Scenarist||OD: 585|
|[ Ssenaristlik||< Scenario||Producing of scenario||OD: 585]|
|125.||Tenor (MUS)||Tenore||Tenor||OD: 621|
|126.||Tenor-bariton (MUS)||Tenore-baritono||Tenor-baritone||OD: 621|
|127.||Terrakota (CERAM)||Terracotta||Terracotta||OD: 622|
|128.||Unison (MUS)||Unison||Unison||OD: 655|
|129.||Viola (MUS)||Viola||Viola||OD: 674|
|130.||Violonçel (MUS)||Violoncello||Violoncello||OD: 674|
|[ Violonçelçalan||Violoncellista||Violoncellist||OD: 674|
2000 The Institute of Manuscripts: Early Alphabets in Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan International Magazine, 8.1: 50-53.
1981 The Azerbaijani Safavid State in the Beginning of the 16th Century, Baku, Elm [in Russian].
Glossary of Foreign Words
Glossary of Foreign Words, Moscow, Russkiy Yazik Press, 1989 [in Russian].
History of Azerbaijan
History of Azerbaijan, Ed. Igrar Aliyev, Baku, Elm Press, 2002, 3. voll. [in Azeri].
Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary
Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary, Baku, 2006.
1961 History of the Caucasian Albanians, Translated by C.J.F. Dowset, London, Oxford University Press.
Orthographical Dictionary of Azeri, Ed. A. Akhundov, Baku, Lider Press, 2004 [in Azeri].
1949 Azerbaijani States in the 15th century, in Collection of Articles on the History of Azerbaijan, Part. 1, Baku 1949: 179 P. [in Russian].
H O M E* ANA SƏHİFƏ * ДОМАШНЯЯ
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