Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences

1. Introduction

Map: Italy and Azerbaijan

Pic.1. Italy and Azerbaijan on the map.

Azerbaijan is a country at crossroads of numerous cultures, religions and civilizations. Since antiquity this land was known as a bridge between Europe and Asia. In the 2nd millennium BC, Azerbaijan was located on the path of migrations of Indo-European and Caucasian peoples. From the 4th century BC to 7th century AD, it was famous as important center of Zoroastrianism. In different periods, the Scythian, Hun, Mongolian, Seljuk and Turcoman tribes invaded Azerbaijan and settled here. Silk Road, the caravan way from China to Europe passed through Azerbaijan. Various races, nations, cultures, religions and languages met and mixed here. Such religions as Zoroastrianism, Shamanism, Islam and Christianity, and such languages as Assyrian, Turkic, Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, Greek, Russian, Italian, Hebrew and German coexisted and influenced each other in Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijani (or Azeri) is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is spoken in some other countries. According to statistics from 2009 there are approximately 40 to 47 million native Azerbaijani speakers in the World. Huge population lives in Iran (circa 26 to 33 million). Around 8 million live in Azerbaijan Republic, and 6 millions in Turkey, Georgia, Russia, USA, Canada, Germany and other countries. In addition, Azeri is mutually intelligible with other Oghuz languages, which include the Turkish language as it is spoken in Turkey, the Caucasus, Cyprus, the Balkans, Iraq, Syria, and Western Europe, as well as the Turkmen language. The total number of people speaking Oghuz languages (Azeri, Turkish, Turkmen and some other small Oghuz languages) is around 120-125 million individuals and 40-47 millions of them are Azeris.

As it has been already noted Azeri is a Turkic language of the Oghuz branch, closely related to Turkish and also historically influenced by Persian and Arabic. It is an agglutinative language. In other words, morphemes (word units) are added (usually as suffixes) to modify the meaning of words. Prehistory of Oghuz languages is related with the Orkhon-Yenisey runic inscriptions which date back to the 5th-7th centuries AD, and the early-medieval heroic epos "Kitabi-Dede Korkut" (The Book of My Grandfather Korkut).

During the Middle Ages, the literary Oguz (proto-Azeri) was developed by such poets as Hasanoglu (Pur-Hasan) -13th c., Imadaddin Nasimi or Nesimi (1370-1417), Shah Ismail Khatai (1487-1524) and Fuzuli (1493-1156). It was complicated language of aristocratic elite, which was not clear for a wide-range of common people in Azerbaijan. The folk Azeri language was developed by Ashugs (minstrels) like Molla Panah Vagif (1717-1797) whose amazing lyrical verses are still popular in Azerbaijan.

During the first half of the 20th century, the new literary Azeri based on the lively folk language was finally formed. In 1923 AD, alphabet in Azerbaijan was changed from Arabic to Latin, and it greatly contributed to process of Westernization in all spheres of life (Alakbarov 2000). The European science, culture and music became spread in Azerbaijan, and Western scientific terms were adopted. Namely in this period many Italian words penetrated into scientific and cultural lexica of Azerbaijan. After 1930s, there were not essential changes in vocabulary of literary Azeri.

Despite Azeri is the Turkic language, many words were adopted from Arabic and Persian during the Middle Ages. These words constitute almost 50% of the literary Azeri. As from the second half of the 19th century, some words penetrated into Azeri from Russian, English, French, Italian and other Western languages. During 1980-2007, few words were adopted also from Turkish of Turkey which is the related to Azeri language. However, the European and Turkish loan-words are not numerous and constitute only about 2 % of modern Azeri.

Relations between Azerbaijan and Italy have very ancient history, which dates back to the era of Roman Empire. Despite the Italian and Azeri languages did not exist in those times, texts in Latin were found in Azerbaijan. For example in the Gobustan National Park near Baku was discovered a stone with Latin inscription that dates back to the 1st century AD: "Emperor Domitianus, the Blessed Caesar Germanicus. Livius Maximus, Legio XII Fulminata".РїС—Р… It proves that some Roman legions could reach the areas around Baku in the 1st century AD. According to Strabo, in 65 BC the Roman General Pompey invaded Kingdom of Caucasian Albania (the present-day Northern Azerbaijan) and was at war with its king Orois.

Roman inscription in Gobustan

Pic. 2. Roman inscription in Gobustan.

The Emperor Mark Anthony struggled against Artavasdes I, the ruler of Media Atropatene (the Hellenistic kingdom in Southern Azerbaijan) and was defeated. However in 35 BC Rome and Azerbaijan became allies against the Parthian Empire. Alexander Helios, the son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, was engaged with Iotapa, the daughter of Artavasdes, the king of Atropatene (see History of Azerbaijan 2002).

In the 4th century AD, the Caucasian Albania kingdom (the present-day Northern Azerbaijan) adopted Christianity. During the early medieval period this Orthodox country had the tight political and cultural relations with Byzantium (Kalankatuaci 1961). From Constantinople they got religious, secular and scientific literature in Latin and Greek. In 5th Р С— 6th centuries, Latin was taught in church schools of Caucasian Albania. For example, "Eneida" by Vergilius and other Latin authors were studied. In the 7th-8th centuries, Azerbaijan was conquered by Arabs and converted to Islam, after which Latin lost its importance, and was replaced by Arabic.

One of villages around Baku is named Romani. This word may be associated with Rome and the Romans legions which visited Baku in the 1st century AD or later. Besides, under the term "Romans" might be mentioned the Eastern Roman Empire, i.e. Byzantium. The official self-name of this state was not Byzantium, but the Roman Empire, and this country was named "Rum", "Roman", "Ruman" in Azeri too. The ruler of Northern Azerbaijan shirvanshah Akhsitan I Kesranid (ruled in 1160-1196 AD) was the cousin of the Emperor Andronic Comnen, and in 1174 AD the Byzantine troops came to Baku to help Akhsitan to beat off the invasion of Russian fleet. The toponym "Ramani" might appear as a result of such contacts (see History of Azerbaijan 2002).

Since the 12th century, relations of Azerbaijan with Rome, Venetian and Genoese Republics started to develop. In the 13th century, Marco Polo (1254-1323?) wrote about the famous kinds of silk produced in the Shirvan province of Azerbaijan. In those times, Genoese traders founded their colonies on the shores of Caspian. They bargained silk, carpets, jewelry and other goods. Italians even had vessels in Caspian. During the rule of sheikh Uveis Jalairid (1356-1374), the Genoese merchants owned lands in the vicinity of Tabriz, the capital of Southern Azerbaijan, and even attempted to build a castle near this city (Petrushevski 1949).

The first Venetian ambassador in Azerbaijan was Ambrogio Contarini (died in 1499). In 1474 he was forwarded to the court of Uzun Hasan Akkoyunlu (Hasan the Long), the king of Azerbaijan who controlled the western Iran and Iraq. The ambassador tried to persuade Uzun Hasan to start a war against Ottoman Empire in alliance with the Republic of Venetia. In 1487, Contarini published a book about his travel to Azerbaijan, Persia, Russia and other countries (Petrushevski 1949).

Marco Polo

Pic.3. Marco Polo (the 16th century unknown Italian artist).

Relations between Rome, Venetian Republic and Azerbaijan strengthened during the rule of Shah Ismail I Safavid (1487-1524), the Azeri ruler of Iran. Shah Ismail was born in Aradabil city in Southern Azerbaijan. After 1500 AD, Ismail captured royal power in Azerbaijan and entire Iran. Then, he was visited by ambassadors from Papas and Venetian Doge who tried to involve him in the war against Ottoman Empire (Efendiyev 1981). Shah Ismail wrote lyrical verses in Azeri under the pseudonym Khatayi, where he used some Roman words like "Keysar" ("Caesar"), "Rum" ("Rome"), etc.

Starting from the second half of the 19th century AD, influence of European culture in Azerbaijan became even stronger. The essential influence of Italian to Azeri begins from 20th century with increasing Westernization in all spheres of life in Azerbaijan. Some classical buildings in the center of Baku were built in the end of the 19th and beginning of 20th by the Italian architects. In 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was declared, and in 1919 the embassy of Azerbaijan in Italy was created. In 1920, Azerbaijan was annexed by Soviet Russia. The embassy was reopened in 1990s after regaining of independence.

2. Lexicographic situation and methods of identification of Italianisms in Azerbaijani.

The linguistic relations of Azeri with Russian, Arabic, Persian and French have been studied in certain extent. However the Azeri-Italian linguistic communications were not satisfactorily investigated.

To establish a total number of Italian words used in Azeri the "Orthographical Dictionary of Azerbaijani" has been studied. The last edition of this dictionary includes almost all words which are used in literary Azeri. It contains about 80 000 lexical units. The difficulty of this work was related with the fact that the orthographical dictionary gives only alphabetical list of Azeri words without explanation of their origins and meanings. Therefore for identifying the Italian words used in Azeri, the additional literature was analyzed. The Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary and Glossary of Foreign Words have been analyzed as well.

Besides, the OD does not include words which are not used in the literary language, i.e. non-formal, jargon, slang and dialect words. Despite almost all Italian words used in Azeri are parts of literary language, a few words are used in slang too. As these words are used orally, they have been included in the list of Italian words used in Azeri with the "pers. com" (personal communication) notification.

3. Italianisms in Azerbaijani language.

As a result of the present study a total of 130 root words of Italian origin have been found in Azeri. Most of these words penetrated into Azeri through Russian when Azerbaijan was the part of the Russian Empire (1813-1918). This process continued after declaration of the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920), and when the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic became the part of the Soviet Union (1922-1991).

60 Azeri derivations of these words have been identified too. These derivations were created by adding Azeri endings (mostly suffixes) to Italian loan-words.

Orthographical Dictionary of the Azerbaijani

Pic.4. Orthographical Dictionary of the Azerbaijani Language, Baku, Lider Press, 2004.

For example, the Azeri verb Fontanlamaq (to gush, to gush force) was created from the Italian noun Fontan (Fontana). Other examples: the nouns Fleytaçi (Flutist) and Fleytaçalan (Flutist, Flute player) are derived from the Italian loan-word Fleyta (Flauto) with the help of two Azeri endings "çi" (corresponds to the English "ist" in Flutist) and "çalan" ("music performer", "musician"). The word Komediantlıq (hypocrisy, playing a part) was created by adding the Azeri ending "lıq" to the adopted Italian word Komediant (Commediante). The complex word Konsertarası (between the parts of the Concert) consists from two words: the Italian word Concerto and the Azeri word Arası (between, in the middle).

Creation of so many Azeri derivations from the adopted Italian words proves that these words are completely integrated into Azeri. Common people use such words as Fontan (Fontana), Bandit (Bandito), Avariya (Avaria), Konsert (Concerto) not knowing that they are of Italian origin.

Regarding to the fields of their application (see Table 1), most of Italian words used in Azeri are related with music, theater and ballet (77, 59 %). These are such words as Akkord (Akkordo), Ariya (Aria), Konsert (Concerto), Opera (Opera), Operetta (Operetta), etc. Until beginning of the 20th century, the Azeri music was based on the ancient Oriental genres like Mugham (Makam) and others. Most of musical terms used in Azerbaijan were of the Azeri Turkish, Arabic and Persian origin. Italian musical terms began to spread in Azerbaijan in the beginning of the 20th century, when the classical European music like Opera, Operetta and Ballet emerged and started to develop in Azerbaijan.

The brilliant Azeri composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov (1885-1948) played a great part in this process. During the 1908-1920, he compiled such Azeri national operas and operettas as "Leyli ve Majnun" (Leyli and Majnun, 1908), "O Olmasin bu Olsun" (Not This One, That One, 1911), "Arshin Mal Alan" (Cloth Peddler, 1913), etc. These works were based on the Azeri national music which was expressed by the European "musical tongue" like opera and operetta. Development of national opera and ballet was accompanied with adoption of Italian musical terms. For example, Uzeyir Hajibeyov wrote textbooks in Azeri on Solfeggio and other musical disciplines where he used many Italian musical terms. His work was continued by other famous Azeri composers like Muslim Magomayev, Kara Karayev and Fikret Amirov. However, the process of intensive inflow of Italian musical terms into Azeri was terminated in 1920-1930s.

Italian words from other fields are used in Azeri as well. For example: Avariya (Avaria), Bandit (Bandito), Fontan (Fontana), Freska (Fresco), Mafiya (Mafia), etc. Despite all these words came from Italian, now they are widely and actively used in Azeri, and became inseparable part of this language.


As a result of the resent study a total of 190 Italian words used in modern Azeri have been identified (Table 2). From them, 130 are root words adopted from Italian, while 60 are Azeri derivations from these words.

The identified words have been classified according to the field of their application (Table 1). Most of these words are related with arts, especially with music, theatre and ballet (104 words or 54,5 %), as well as with sculpture, painting and literature (20 words or 10,5%).

Table 1. Classification of Italian words used in Azeri.




Music (MUS), theater (TEATRO), ballet (COR) 77 59,0
Sculpture (SCULT), painting (PITT), literature (LETT), art (ART), ceramics (CERAM) 11 8,5
Politic (POLIT), and history (ST) 6 4,6
Biology: names of animals (Zool) and plants (BOT) 5 3,8
Finances (FIN, COMM) 5 3,8
Architecture (ARCH) 4 3,0
Food (GASTR) 4 3,0
Other or with no mark 18 14,0
TOTAL 130,0 100

Azerbaijani alphabet and its short graphic-phonetic explanation.

The Azerbaijani alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, except for ə, x, and q, which do not exist in Turkish. Stress normally falls on the last syllable of a word. Below is giventhe transcription of Azeri letters according to IPA system.

A a [ɑ:], B b [b], C c [ʤ], Ç ç [ʧ], , E e [ɛ], Ə ə [æ], F f [f], G g [gʲ], Ğ ğ [ɣ], H h [h], X x [x], I ı [ɯ], İ i [ɪ], J j [ʒ], K k [k], Q q [g], L l [l], M m [m], N n [n], O o [ɔ], Ö ö [œ], P p [p], R r [r], S s [s], Ş ş [ʃ], T t [t], U u[u], Ü ü [y], V v [v], Y y [j], Z z [z]

Table 2. List of Italian words used in Azerbaijani.


Music (MUS), theater (TEATRO), ballet (COR), sculpture (SCULT), painting (PITT), literature (LETT), art (ART), ceramics (CERAM), Politic (POLIT), history (ST), biology: names of animals (ZOOL), plants (BOT), Finances (FIN, COMM), Architecture (ARCH), Food (GASTR).

Normal Font - Loan-words adopted from Italian.
Italic - Azeri derivations from these loan-words.


Orthographical dictionary [11]
Pers. com. Personal communication.


Azeri spelling

Base Italiana
di partenza

Meaning in English


1. Adajio (MUS) Adagio Slow pace in music OD: 22
2. Akkord (MUS) Accordo Chord OD: 32
3. Alleqretto (MUS) Allegretto Moderately rapid pace in music OD: 37
4. Alleqro (MUS) Allegro Rapid pace in music OD: 37
5. Alto (MUS) Alto Alto OD: 39
6. Andante (MUS) Andante Andante OD: 41
7. Apassionata (MUS) Appassionata Kind of musical composition OD: 48
8. Arxivolt (ARCH) Archivolto Jambs and lintels of an arch OD: 48
9. Ariozo (MUS) Arioso Arioso OD: 48
10. Aristro (MUS) Aristro Aristro (musical term) OD: 48
11. Ariya (MUS) Aria Aria OD: 48
12. Ariyetta (MUS) Arietta Arietta OD: 48
13. Arlekin (TEATRO) Arlecchino Harlequin OD: 48
14. Arpedcio (MUS) Arpeggio Arpeggio OD: 49
15. Avariya Avaria Wreck, crush OD: 57
16. Avizo (FIN) Avviso Letter to advice OD: 58
17. Balerina (COR) Ballerina Female ballet-dancer OD: 70
18. Balet (COR) Balletto Ballet OD: 70
[ Baletçi < Balletto Ballet-master OD: 70
Balet-nağıl < Balletto Ballet-tale OD: 70
Balet-oratoriya Balletto-oratorio Ballet-oratorio OD: 70]
19. Bal-kanto (MUS) Bel canto Bel canto OD: 77
20. Banda Banda Band, gang OD: 71
21. Bandit Bandito Bandit OD: 71
[ Banditcəsinə < Bandito In bandit way, like a bandit OD: 71]
22. Banditizm Banditismo Gangsterism OD: 71
[ Banditlik Banditismo Gangsterism OD: 71]
23. Bariton (MUS) Baritono Baritone OD: 72
24. Barkarola (MUS) Barcarola Barcarole OD: 72
25. Barokko (ARCH) Barocco Baroque OD: 73
26. Bas (MUS) Basso Bass OD: 73
27. Bas-bariton (MUS) Basso-baritono Bass-baritone OD: 73
28. Belladon (BOT) Belladonna Belladonna OD: 77
29. Belveder (ARCH) Belvedere Belvedere OD: 78
30. Brokkoli (BOT) Broccolo Kind of cabbage OD: 79
31. Çao Ciao Ciao Pers. com.
32. Do (MUS) Do Do (musical note) OD: 176
33. Doj (ST) Doge Head of the Venetian or Genoese republics OD: 179
34. Faqot (MUS) Fagotto Musical instrument OD: 225
35. Faşist (POLIT) Fascista Fascist, Nazi OD: 226
[ Faşistləşdirilmək < Fascista To be fascisized; to be turned into fascist. OD: 226
Faşistləşdirilmiş < Fascista Fascisized; smb. who became like fascist; smth. which became like fascism OD: 226
Faşistləşdirmə < Fascista Fascisization (introducing or spreading fascism) OD: 226
Faşistləşdirmək < Fascista To spread fascism OD: 226
Faşistləşmə < Fascista To turn into fascist OD: 226
Faşistləşmək < Fascista To become fascisized (like fascist) OD: 226
Faşistləşmiş < Fascista Fascisized, one who became like fascist, similar to fascist OD: 226
Faşistlik < Fascismo Fascism OD: 226
Faşistpərəstlik < Fascismo Love of fascism OD: 226]
36. Faşizm (POLIT) Fascismo Fascism OD: 226
37. Fiasko Fiasco Fiasco (failure, disaster) OD: 230
38. Fleyta (MUS) Flauto Flute (musical instrument) OD: 234
[ Fleytaçalan < Flauto Flutist OD: 234
Fleytaçı < Flauto Flutist OD: 234]
39. Fontan (ARCH) Fontana Fountain OD: 234
[ Fontanlama < Fontana Gushing, gushing force OD: 234
Fontanlamaq < Fontana To gush, to gush force OD: 234
Fontanvuran < Fontana Something that gushes, gushes force OD: 234
Fontanvurma < Fontana Gushing, gushing force OD: 234]
40. Forte (MUS) Forte Strongly, loudly OD: 235
41. Fortepiano (MUS) Forte + Piano Piano OD: 235
[ Fortepianoçu < Forte + Piano Pianist OD: 235]
42. Fortissimo (MUS) Fortissimo Very loudly OD: 235
43. Freska (PITT) Fresco Fresco OD: 237
[ Freska-rəsm < Fresco Fresco-Picture OD: 237]
44. Fuqa (MUS) Fuga Fug (musical composition) OD: 237
45. Fuqato (MUS) Fugato Fugato (musical composition) OD: 238
46. Getto Ghetto Ghetto OD: 241
47. İmpressario (TEATRO, MUS) Impresario Impresario OD: 302
48. Kadensiya (MUS) Cadenza Cadenza OD: 320
49. Kansona (MUS) Canzone Canzone OD: 323
50. Kansonette (MUS) Canzonetta Canzonet OD: 323
51. Kantabile (MUS) Cantabile Cantabile OD: 323
52. Kantata (MUS) Cantata Cantata OD: 323
53. Kantilen (MUS) Cantilena Cantilena OD: 323
54. Kapriççio (MUS) Capriccio Capriccio OD: 323
55. Katakomba Catacomba Catacomb OD: 323
56. Kavaler Cavaliere Cavalier OD: 327
57. Kavatina (MUS) Cavatina Little aria OD: 327
58. Kolorit (PITT) Colorito Coloring, color OD: 344
[ Koloritli < Colorito Picturesque, vivid OD: 344]
59. Komediant (TEATRO) Commediante Comedian (actor) OD: 344
[ Komediantlıq < Commediante Hypocrisy, playing a part OD: 344]
60. Konsert (MUS) Concerto Concert OD: 347
[ Konsertarası < Concerto Between two parts of the concert OD: 347]
61. Konsertino (MUS) Concertino Concertino OD: 347
[ Konsertqabağı < Concerto Prior to concert, before the concert OD: 347
Konsert-oçerk (MUS) < Concerto Concerto-essay, concerto-story OD: 347]
62. Konsert-rapsodiya (MUS) Concerto-rapsodia Concerto-rhapsody OD: 347
[ Konsertrçi < Concerto Concertmaster OD: 347]
63. Kontraband Contrabbando Contraband OD: 348
or Kontrabanda Contrabando Contraband OD: 348
[ Kontrabandaçı < Contrabando Contrabandist OD: 348
Kontrabandaçılıq < Contrabando Contraband as profession OD: 348]
64. Kontrabas (MUS) Contrabbasso Contrabbass OD: 348
[ Kontrabasçalan < Contrabbasso Contrabassist OD: 348]
65. Kontrafaqot (MUS) Contrafaqotto Contrafagot OD: 348
66. Kontralto (MUS) Contralto Contralto OD: 348
67. Kvartet (MUS) Quartetto Quartette OD: 362
[ Kvartet-poema Quartetto-poema Quartette-poem OD: 362]
68. Kvattroçento (MUS, LETT, ART) Quattrocento Quattro cento OD: 362
69. Kvintet (MUS) Quimtetto Quintet OD: 362
70. Qlissando (MUS) Glissando Glissando OD: 401
71. Qondola Gondola Gondola OD: 403
[ Qondolaçı Gondoliere Gondolier OD: 403]
72. Qranat Granata Grenade (little bomb) OD: 408
[ Qranatatan < Granata Grenade cup discharger, grenade thrower. OD: 408]
73. Qranit (MINERAL) Granito Granite OD: 408
[ Qranitləşmə
74. Larqo (MUS) Largo Largo OD: 408
75. Leqato (MUS) Legato Legato OD: 419
76. Libretto (MUS) Libretto Libretto OD: 423
[ Librettoçu < Libretto Librettist OD: 423]
77. Lirə (FIN) Lira Lira (money) OD: 424
78. Madonna (RELIG) Madonna Madonna OD: 428
79. Madrepor (ZOOL) Madrepora Madrepora (species of corals) OD: 428
80. Maestro (MUS) Maestro Maestro OD: 428
81. Mafioz Mafiosi Mafiosi OD: 428
82. Mafiya Mafia Mafia OD: 428
[ Mafiyaçı Mafiosi Mafiosi OD: 428]
83. Makaron (GASTR) Maccharoni Macaroni (food) OD: 429
84. Makaronizm (LETT) Stile maccharonico The Macaroni Style (in literature) OD: 429
85. Makiavellizm (POLIT) Machiavellismo Machiavellism OD: 429
86. Makkiavellist (POL) Machiavellista Machiavellist OD: 429
87. Makkiya (BOT) Macchia Macchia (botanical term) OD: 429
88. Mandolina (MUS) Mandolino Mandolin (musical instrument) OD: 432
[ Mandolinaçalan < Mandolino Mandolin player OD: 432
Mandolinaçı < Mandolino Mandolin player OD: 432]
89. Marina (PITT, ART) Marina Marine (canvas with image of the sea) OD: 433
90. Marinist Marinista Marinist (artist creating pictures of the sea). OD: 433
91. Marinizm (POLIT) Marinismo Marinism (literary current of imitators of the poet Marino) OD: 433
92. Maskaron (ARCH) Mascherone The sculptural decoration in the form of 13 masks with images of the human or animal face. OD: 434
93. Mayolika (CERAM) Maiolica Majolica (ceramic from color clay) OD: 436
94. Messo (MUS) Mezzo Mezzo OD: 438
95. Messo-soprano (MUS) Mezzosoprano Mezzo-soprano OD: 438
96. Messo-tinto (PITT) Mezzotinto Mezzotint OD: 438
97. Netto (COMM) Netto Pure weight OD: 479
98. Nonet (MUS) Nonetto Musical composition for nine instruments or voices. OD: 487
99. Novella (LETT) Novella Novella OD: 487
100. Oktet (MUS) Ottetto Octet OD: 493
101. Opera (MUS) Opera Opera OD: 495
102. Opera-balet (MUS, COR) Opera-balletto Opera-ballet OD: 495
103. Opera-buff (MUS) Opera buffa Opera-buff OD: 495
[ Operaçılıq < Opera Composing opera OD: 495]
104. Opera-dram (MUS) Opera-dramma Opera-drama OD: 495
[ Opera-əfsanə < Opera Opera-legend OD: 495]
105. Opera-kantata (MUS) Opera-cantata Opera-cantata OD: 495
106. Opera-komediya (MUS) Opera-comedia Opera-comedy OD: 495
[ Operalaşma < Opera Turning into opera, becoming like opera OD: 495
Opera-nağıl < Opera Opera-tale OD: 495]
107. Opera-oratoriya (MUS) Opera-oratorio Opera-oratorio OD: 495
108. Opera-poema (MUS) Opera-poema Opera-poem OD: 495
[ Operasevər < Opera Opera lover, opera fan OD: 495
Operavarı < Opera Like opera, similar to opera OD: 495]
109. Opera-vodevil (MUS) Opera-vaudeville Opera-vaudeville OD: 495
110. Operetta (MUS) Operetta Operetta OD: 495
111. Passakalya (MUS) Passacaglia Old dance of Hispanic origin. OD: 512
112. Pasta (GASTR) Pasta Pasta OD: 512
113. Pianino (MUS) Pianino Piano (musical instrument) OD: 520
[ Pianinoçalan < Pianino Pianist, piano player. OD: 520
Pianoçu < Piano Pianist (see Pianoçalan) OD: 520
Pianoçu-illüstrator < Piano Pianist-illustrator OD: 520
Pianoçuluq < Piano The profession of pianist OD: 520]
114. Pizza (GASTR) Pizza Pizza Pers. com.
115. Plastilin (ART) Plastilina Plasticine (mass from clay, wax and oil). OD: 523
116. Pomidor (BOT) Pomidoro Tomatoes OD: 526
[ Pomidorlu < Pomidoro With tomatoes OD: 526
Pomidoryığan < Pomidoro Collector of tomatoes OD: 526
Pomodorluq < Pomidoro Tomatoes plantation OD: 526]
117. Primadonna (TEATRO) Primadonna Prima Donna OD: 529
118. Saldo (FIN) Balance Prima Donna OD: 529
119. Salto Salto Somersault OD: 551
120. Solo (MUS) Solo Solo OD: 580
121. Spagetti (GASTR) Spaghetti Spaghetti OD: 585
122. Ssenari (TEATRO) Scenario Scenario OD: 585
[ Ssenariçilik < Scenario Producing of scenario OD: 585]
123. Ssenarist (TEATRO) Scenarista Scenarist OD: 585
[ Ssenaristlik < Scenario Producing of scenario OD: 585]
124. Temp Tempo Rate OD: 621
125. Tenor (MUS) Tenore Tenor OD: 621
126. Tenor-bariton (MUS) Tenore-baritono Tenor-baritone OD: 621
127. Terrakota (CERAM) Terracotta Terracotta OD: 622
128. Unison (MUS) Unison Unison OD: 655
129. Viola (MUS) Viola Viola OD: 674
130. Violonçel (MUS) Violoncello Violoncello OD: 674
[ Violonçelçalan Violoncellista Violoncellist OD: 674
Violonçelçi Violoncellista Violoncellist OD: 674]


Alakbarov, Farid
2000 The Institute of Manuscripts: Early Alphabets in Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan International Magazine, 8.1: 50-53.

Efendiyev, Oktay
1981 The Azerbaijani Safavid State in the Beginning of the 16th Century, Baku, Elm [in Russian].

Glossary of Foreign Words
Glossary of Foreign Words, Moscow, Russkiy Yazik Press, 1989 [in Russian].

History of Azerbaijan
History of Azerbaijan, Ed. Igrar Aliyev, Baku, Elm Press, 2002, 3. voll. [in Azeri].

Italian-Azeri and Azeri-Italian Dictionary
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