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"History +" is a popular science web-site providing information on
different scientific and cultural issues such as ancient medicine,
cultural anthropology and history, arts and philosophy.


Aesthetic Ideal of the Orient

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All people want to be beautiful, healthy, cheerful and happy. However, beauty is not only what pleases our eyes, ears or sense of smell. Often, beauty is perfection. As a rule, good verses, superb music, brilliant scientific theories, and the canvases of talented artists are perfect. Experiencing these things gives us pleasure. A very good move in chess or a successful pass in football may also be called "beautiful". When a scientist successfully and effectively proves a theory, colleagues say: "It is beautifully formulated! Continue reading...

Tusi about evolutuon

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Various evolutionary ideas existed before Darwin's time, as shown in the folklore and religious beliefs of certain Oriental peoples, including the Babylonians and Egyptians. However, these ideas were more mythological than scientific. They were later adopted and expanded upon by ancient Greek scholars. Anixamander of Miletus (c. 610 – c. 546 BC) wrote that human being developed over time from fish to human. Many of his books is lost and only survived in fragments. However this ideas influenced people in later generations. Xenophanes of Colophon was the first scholar to examine fossils. Then he came up with a theory explaining the origin of nature and life. Muslim scholars such as Abu Reihan Biruni (972-1048), Ibn Bajja (1070-1138), Nasiraddin Tusi (1201-1274) and Ibn Tufail (1110-1185) later tried to develop the ancient Greek evolutionary views. Continue reading...